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Software defined networking, Openvswitch, and Ubuntu 12.04

Recently I've been testing over committing on KVM. Once I started running hundreds of virtual machines (vms) on a single node, I realized that in order to get them to do anything I have to access them over the network to run something like Ansible playbooks designed to test load.

In order to provide networking resources to the vms, I decided to take a look at Openvswitch and what it takes to get it up and running with KVM and Ubuntu 12.04/Precise.

Software defined networking

Like cloud and big-data, software defined networking (SDN) is a loaded term. But, like those terms, I feel I need to at least try to get a grasp of what it means.

"A good working definition of SDN is the separation of the data and control functions of today's routers and other layer two networking infrastructure with a well-defined programming interface between the two." -- Via Arstechnica

SDN is a big part of OpenStack as well. Starting with the Folsom release, networking was split out into it's own *as-a-Service capability called Quantum, whereas previously it was a sub-component of Nova. So given I'm a big fan, and user, of OpenStack, it's important for me to get a good grasp of SDN.

Openflow is also an important technology in SDN that requires some research time.

But, having said all that, basically I'm just going to install and use Openvswitch on a single compute node. :)

Building on other's work

I followed these blog posts on configuring Openvswitch on Ubuntu 12.04/Precise:

I'm not really doing anything new here--though I hope to at some point... :)

Installation

I put together an ansible playbook to install Openvswitch in Ubuntu 12.04. There is no easy, direct way (that I'm aware of) to install Openvswitch in Precise...unfortunately I just can't do @apt-get install openvswitch@ and have everything work like magic. I guess building the module is the only unusual thing, and this will disappear in future versions of Ubuntu--perhaps it's already not necessary in 12.10, not sure, haven't looked it up.

I'm not going to directly cut and paste my ansible playbook into this post, but suffice it to say that most dependencies can be installed via apt-get, but there is one step required to build and module.

# Install these packages:
#   - openvswitch-datapath-source 
#   - bridge-utils
#   - module-assistant  
#   - openvswitch-brcompat
#   - openvswitch-common
#   - openvswitch-switch
#   - linux-headers-3.2.0-23-generic
#   - linux-headers-generic-pae
# Then build the module:
$ module-assistant auto-install openvswitch-datapath

Next we set BRCOMPAT=yes in /etc/default/openvswitch-switch and restart openvswitch-switch.

Pox

Pox, among other things, is an Openflow controller.

"At its core, it’s a platform for the rapid development and prototyping of network control software using Python. Meaning, at a very basic level, it’s one of a growing number of frameworks...for helping you write an OpenFlow controller." -- Via Pox website

Hey, it's Python, it's Openflow...what else do I need. Sign me up. :)

$ cd /usr/local/src
$ git clone http://github.com/noxrepo/pox
$ zdaemon -p 'python /usr/local/src/pox/pox.py \
--no-cli forwarding.l2_learning' -d start

And now Pox should be listening on port 6633:

$ netstat -ant | grep 6633
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:6633            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
$ sudo lsof -i | grep 6633
python   34150   root    3u  IPv4 39211055      0t0  TCP *:6633 (LISTEN)

More information about pox can be found on the Openflow site.

Configure the bridge

Now we can add a bridge to the openv switch.

$ ovs-vsctl add-br br-int

And then configure br-int (or whatever you've called the bridge), and I'm using the eth2 interface in this example.

$ ovs-vsctl add-port br-int eth2; ifconfig eth2 0; ifconfig br-int  \
netmask 255.255.255.0

Let's tell Openvswitch to use the Pox controller that is running.

$ ovs-vsctl set-controller br-int tcp::6633

Finally we need interface up and down scripts.

ifdown:

$ cat /sbin/ovs-ifdown
#!/bin/sh 
switch='br-int' 
/sbin/ifconfig $1 0.0.0.0 down 
ovs-vsctl del-port ${switch} $1

ifup:

$ cat /sbin/ovs-ifup
#!/bin/sh switch='br-int' 
/sbin/ifconfig $1 0.0.0.0 up
 ovs-vsctl add-port ${switch} $1
 

Now we can boot some vms!

Booting a vm

I'm booting vms via a script, and part of the kvm command line options is the network tap, which uses the ifup/ifdown scripts:

-net tap,script=/sbin/ovs-ifup,downscript=/sbin/ovs-ifdown

And, here is a running instance:

$ ps ax | grep "kvm -drive" | head -1
  9831 ?        Sl    21:01 kvm -drive if=virtio,file=/mnt/intel/1.img -m 2048 \
  -boot a -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:a1:c0:fd \
  -net tap,script=/sbin/ovs-ifup,downscript=/sbin/ovs-ifdown -nographic -vnc :1 \
   -chardev file,id=charserial0,path=/mnt/intel/1.console.log \
   -device isa-serial,chardev=charserial0,id=serial0 -chardev pty,id=charserial1 \
   -device isa-serial,chardev=charserial1,id=serial1 \
   -device virtio-balloon-pci,id=balloon0,bus=pci.0,addr=0x5

Right now there's about 300 vms running on this single compute node.

$ ps ax  |grep "kvm -drive" | wc -l
301

Fun stuff. :)

What now?

Well, I've achieved my goal of getting Openvswitch up and running to enable networking between vms on a single compute node.

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ ifconfig eth0 | grep 192
          inet addr:192.168.100.111  Bcast:192.168.100.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ ping -c 1 192.168.100.23
PING 192.168.100.23 (192.168.100.23) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.100.23: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.452 ms

--- 192.168.100.23 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.452/0.452/0.452/0.000 ms

I think my next step will be to work in multiple virtual machines to see if I can do some of the interesting and useful things that Openflow is capable of, and to find out how I can work with the Pox system to learn more about SDN.

Another important thing to do is to get a test environment of OpenStack Folsom (or Grizzly) up and running to see how Quantum utilizes Openflow and SDN.

I'm hoping to spend the next few days learning about Pox. Wish me luck. :)


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